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Mere fact of accident not enough to convict on OHSA charges

Appeal court finds each charge must be analyzed

By Adrian Miedema

A trial judge was wrong to find a city guilty of Occupational Health and Safety Act charges solely because an accident had occurred in which a worker died. The trial court should have gone further and analyzed each charge.

The charges were filed against the City of St. John’s in Newfoundland after a tragic accident on a road construction site that resulted in one worker dying after being hit by a car. There were seven charges against the city including failure to provide adequate training and failure to maintain adequate traffic control.

The trial judge had held that the mere fact of the car striking the employee was proof of the actus reus of the charges. The appeal court decided that that was wrong: the trial judge should have analyzed each charge to determine whether the prosecutor had called evidence to prove each element of the offence. The trial judge had wrongly focused on the consequences of the alleged breach of the OHSA (the accident and the worker’s death) rather than on “the identification and proof of the actual elements of each offence.”

This decision is a welcome reminder that occupational health and safety prosecutors cannot simply rely, in seeking to obtain a conviction on OHSA charges, on the fact that an accident took place. Instead, they must do the work of proving each charge.

Adrian Miedema

Adrian Miedema
Adrian Miedema is a partner in the Toronto Employment Group of Dentons Canada LLP. He advises and represents public- and private-sector employers in employment, health and safety and human rights matters. He appears before employment tribunals and all levels of the Ontario courts on behalf of employers. He also advises employers on strategic and risk management considerations in employment policy and contracts. For more information, visit or
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